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    對“復雜電磁環境”的淺顯認識

    2018-09-05

    信息化變革發展迅速,戰場環境不再是海、陸、空、天的四維戰場了,隨著各種電子信息系統釋放的高密度、高強度、多頻譜的電磁波,電磁空間也成為了一個重要的戰場空間,構成了日益復雜的電磁環境。

    有雷達的存在就會有干擾,有干擾就必然會讓雷達采取抗干擾的措施。也就是說,每一種雷達技術的應用,都會引起一種新的干擾技術,而新的干擾技術也會促進新的雷達抗干擾措施或者是新的雷達體制,這樣的博弈就促使了雷達干擾和抗干擾技術不斷向前發展,并且拓展的頻率范圍也越來越廣。

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    同時,各種通信系統,例如移動通信、衛星通信、廣播電視等,以及近程無線通信、導航系統、車載雷達、物聯網等電子信息系統都共同組成并影響著電磁環境,從而造就了當今如此復雜的電磁環境。

    什么是電磁環境?

    電磁環境是電磁空間的一種表現形式,是存在于給定場所的所有電磁活動和現象的總和,它體現的是電子系統或裝備在執行規定任務時可能遇到的各種電磁輻射強度在不同頻率、時間、空間范圍內的分布狀況。

    電磁活動和現象包括自然電磁現象、民用電磁現象、敵對雙方的電磁應用和反電磁應用活動,如雷達/通信/電子對抗/導航定位等。

    為什么說電磁環境是復雜的?

    復雜性是對戰場電磁環境最本質的特性描述,它是指在一定的戰場時空范圍內,自然電磁現象、人為電磁輻射、敵我雙方激烈對抗等綜合作用而形成的電磁環境,所呈現出的信號密集,種類繁雜,對抗激烈,動態變化等復雜特性。

    空間中多種信號交織

    電磁信號特性在空間的分布狀態通常可用電磁態勢圖來表示,來自于海陸空天不同作戰平臺的大量電磁輻射形成了交叉重疊的電磁輻射態勢。戰場空域的某一個點,可能會接收到的電磁信號既包括軍用的電磁輻射,又會有民用和自然的輻射信號,當然也可能存在敵我雙方電子干擾信號。

    時間上時而密集,時而靜默

    不同輻射源發射信號的時間序列是不一樣的,有些是連續波,有些是脈沖,脈沖信號的脈寬、重復頻率等信息也是不同的,并且時間上重疊在一起就會形成更復雜的、動態變化的環境,時而密集,時而靜默。

    有限的頻譜資源,無數的電子設備

    除了時間跟空間,頻譜也是一種重要的作戰資源,并且是十分有限的。通過以前的文章我們可以知道,雖然貌似電磁頻譜是無限的,但實際應用卻是非常狹窄的。

    例如,無線電通信信號通常從幾百KHz到十幾個GHz,雷達常用頻率也是集中在1~18GHz。因此在這樣有限的狹窄的電磁頻譜范圍內必然呈現出重疊的現象,這有時候會給同類電子設備產生災難性的后果。

    能量強弱控制的精準與掌控

    人們通過天線及其控制技術,想把電磁能量發射到任意的特定空間,電磁環境的功率特征更加豐富,可以使局部區域在特定時間內的電磁輻射可能特別強大,達到對對方的電子設備形成損傷、壓制、干擾、或者欺騙的作用。

    復雜電磁環境的認知

    電磁環境我們雖然肉眼看不見摸不著,但它卻是客觀存在的,對復雜電磁環境的認知深度將直接影響我們對它的利用和再現以及掌控程度。

    因此就需要監測、度量并描述后呈現。人們總是想通過儀器設備來偵測感知,從電磁波在空間、時間,頻譜,能量強度、極化或調制等特征域的表現來對其進行描述。

    那么,需要從電磁波的時間、頻率來判斷其有無,從方位、極化等來了解其來源和方式,從其脈內或脈間特征來掌握其細節和用途,從而搞清其所傳遞的信息和意圖。

    對電磁環境的描述是進行檢測和度量的依據,而檢測則為特性的分析提供支持,度量則為電磁環境的復雜情況提供評價和指標,通過描述、檢測和度量形成對復雜系統的認知框架。

    “復雜”本身是一個相對的、動態變化的概念。

    同樣的環境,不同適應能力的敵我雙方可能對復雜性的感受不一樣;同一部電子設備,在不同的頻段、時間、位置,其對復雜性的感受也不會一樣;隨著技術的發展、認知的提高,現在看起來是“復雜”的環境,在將來可能就是簡單的。

     

    來源:雷達通信電子戰(SAR-ECCM)

    惠民乐彩票
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